The sun is the strongest energy source for our planet. Without solar heat and light any life on the Earth would not be possible. All our daily affairs include energy use. It is necessary for transport and cooking movement, for work and rest, for heating and cooling of premises. And even to make one kind of energy, it is necessary to spend another. Energy of the sun can be used for set of problems. One of them is a transformation of a solar energy in electric, in a so-called solar electricity. For transformation of a sunlight to an electricity I use solar batteries. For the first time solar batteries have applied at an outer space exploration in 1957.
They have been established on the companion and developed electric energy for its work. A basic element for manufacture of batteries is silicon. Transformation of a solar energy to the electric has weight of advantages. First of all it is 100 % reliability – the Sun from us anywhere will not get to under forecasts of scientific some more millions years. Also it is pure and accordingly a safe energy source for health. Also that the most interesting only thanks to that we have a Sun we and we have almost all energy sources. It is possible to name an exception a tidal energy for which the Moon, and radioactive elements which are used at nuclear stations is responsible. The wind power completely depends on the Sun and a difference of temperatures it and created.
Energy of coal, oil and natural gas also in the power of chemical processes which occur in bowels of the Earth under the influence of solar beams. All is good, but is “small” problem. The mankind with such speed spends fossil energy sources what to be restored they are not in time in any way. It would be time and reflect on replacement of “fossil energy”.
Scientists assert that that quantity of a solar energy which reaches from the Sun the Earth only for one day will suffice completely to provide all world with energy for a year. And thus all of us equally use fossil energy sources – oil, coal, gas, putting an irreparable harm to environment. Presently use of a solar electricity already widespread. In the remote places where to hold on a cable from power stations costs very expensively, and sometimes and it is simply impossible, use a solar energy. These are the remote farms, separate manned islands, sea and space stations. At present approximately 7 million houses worldwide are equipped by solar batteries.
Also in the countries where electric energy costs much also enough of sunny days in a year, owners of private houses and owners of offices establish solar batteries on roofs of buildings and I use a solar electricity without damage to own budget. The sun replaces 40-60 % of all expenses for other energy carriers. Sometimes the solar electricity completely suffices for needs of the house and even is developed more than the necessary. Then owners sell to its service companies, thus filling up the family budget and paying back installation of solar batteries. In Germany the government buys the solar electricity made on day at private persons, and sells it back under lower price in the evening, stimulating with that installation of solar batteries.
The second variant of application of a sunlight is its use on direct appointment. Its this use for water heating, for heating of premises, for drying of various materials. For these purposes use thermal collectors. In the summer in a midland of Europe productivity of thermal collectors from 1 sq. m. can reach 50-60 liters of water a day, heating up to temperature of 60-70 degrees. In Israel of water of 80 degrees heats up by means of a solar energy. The basic countries-consumers of a solar energy are Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Austria, Israel. The total area of thermal power stations makes already more than 8 million square miles.
At present use of thermal collectors, according to with availability under the price prevails. But electric power reception much more interesting, than heat reception. The science is not necessary on a place and in the near future it is necessary to wait new workings out in this direction. They will lower expenses for manufacture of a solar electricity and will provide mankind with cheap and safe energy.