On a threshold of the XXI-st century the person even more often began to reflect that becomes a basis of its existence in a new era. Energy was and remains to the main making human life. People have passed a way from the first fire to atomic power stations. Exist ‘ traditional ‘ kinds of alternative energy: energy of the Sun and a wind, sea waves and hot wells, inflow and outflow. On the basis of these natural resources power stations have been created: wind, tidal, geothermal, solar.
Wind power stations
The principle of action of wind power stations is simple: the wind twists wind-driven generator blades, actuating an electrogenerator shaft. The generator in turn develops energy electric. It turns out that wind power stations work, as toy cars on batteries, only the principle of their action is opposite. Instead of transformation of electric energy in mechanical, the wind power turns to an electric current.
Tidal power stations
For development of the electric power of power station of this kind use energy of inflow. The first such power station (Pauzhetsky) 5 mV has been constructed by capacity on Kamchatka. For the device of the elementary tidal power station the pool – the gulf blocked by a dam or a river mouth is necessary. In a dam there are water throughput apertures and turbines which rotate the generator are established. During inflow water arrives in pool. When water levels in pool and the sea will be made even, shutters of water throughput apertures are closed. With approach of outflow the water level in the sea goes down, and when the pressure becomes sufficient, turbines and the electrogenerators connected to it start to work, and water gradually leaves pool.
Geothermal power stations
Power stations of this kind will transform internal heat of the Earth (energy of hot steam-and-water sources) to an electricity. The first geothermal power station has been constructed on Kamchatka. There are some schemes of reception of the electric power on geothermal power station. The direct scheme: natural steam goes on pipes to the turbines connected to electrogenerators. The indirect scheme: steam preliminary (before gets to turbines) clear of the gases causing destruction of pipes. The mixed scheme: crude steam arrives in turbines, and then from the water, formed as a result of condensation, delete the gases not dissolved in it.
Solar power stations
Solar power stations in the basic two types now are under construction: solar power stations of tower type and solar power stations of the distributed (modular) type. In tower solar power stations the central receiver with a field heliostats, providing concentration degree in some thousand is used. The system of tracking the Sun is considerably difficult, as rotation round two axes is required. Management of system is carried out by means of the COMPUTER. As a working body in the thermal engine water steam with temperature to 550 is usually used? With, air and other gases – to 1000?
Thermal power stations work by such principle: fuel is burnt in a fire chamber of a steam copper. Heat allocated at burning evaporates the water circulating in pipes located in a copper, and overheats formed steam. Steam, extending, that rotates the turbine, and, in turn, – a shaft of the electric generator. Then fulfilled steam is condensed; water from the condenser through system of heaters comes back in a copper.
Hydroelectric power stations
Hydroelectric power stations will transform energy of water stream to the electric power by means of the hydraulic turbines resulting in rotation electric generators. The hydroelectric power station has the greatest EFFICIENCY when water stream falls on the turbine from above. For these purposes the dam lifting a water level in the river and focusing a pressure of water in a place of races is under construction.